The pine nut is the seed of the pine tree, a coniferous resinous tree of the Pinaceae family, with premium pine nuts originating from the Pinus pinea species. Australia only has two current commercial-scale Pinus pinea growers, with one of the orchards being approximately 370 hectares. The pine nut market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 8% from 2020-24, which presents a significant opportunity for Australia. With the wholesale price of $80/kg and a conservative estimate of 100 kg per hectare, every 1,000 hectares of pine plantations could amount to a gross value of production (GVP) of $8 million per annum. The development of a Strategic RD&E Plan for an Australian pine nut industry is a crucial first step for the industry to grow over the next decade. The Plan includes a communications and extension strategy, and highlights five research and development priorities for the industry to implement.